Executing and composing middleware

The easiest way to execute middleware is to write closures and attach them to a Zend\Stratigility\MiddlewarePipe instance. You can nest MiddlewarePipe instances to create groups of related middleware, and attach them using a base path so they only execute if that path is matched.

$api = new MiddlewarePipe();  // API middleware collection
$api->pipe(/* ... */);        // repeat as necessary

$app = new MiddlewarePipe();  // Middleware representing the application
$app->pipe('/api', $api);     // API middleware attached to the path "/api"

Request path changes when path matched

When you pipe middleware using a path (other than '' or '/'), the middleware is dispatched with a request that strips the matched segment(s) from the start of the path. Using the previous example, if the path /api/users/foo is matched, the $api middleware will receive a request with the path /users/foo. This allows middleware segregated by path to be re-used without changes to its own internal routing.

Handling errors

While the above will give you a basic application, it has no error handling whatsoever. We recommend adding an initial middleware layer using the Zend\Stratigility\Middleware\ErrorHandler class:

use Zend\Diactoros\Response;
use Zend\Stratigility\Middleware\ErrorHandler;

$app->pipe(new ErrorHandler(new Response());
// Add more middleware...

You can learn how to customize the error handler to your needs in the chapter on error handlers.

Extending the MiddlewarePipe

Another approach is to extend the Zend\Stratigility\MiddlewarePipe class itself, particularly if you want to allow attaching other middleware to your own middleware. In such a case, you will generally override the process() method to perform any additional logic you have, and then call on the parent in order to iterate through your stack of middleware:

class CustomMiddleware extends MiddlewarePipe
    public function process(ServerRequestInterface $request, DelegateInterface $delegate)
        // perform some work...

        // delegate to parent
        parent::process($request, $delegate);

        // maybe do more work?

Another approach using this method would be to override the constructor to add in specific middleware, perhaps using configuration provided. In this case, make sure to also call parent::__construct() to ensure the middleware queue is initialized; we recommend doing this as the first action of the method.

use Zend\Stratigility\MiddlewarePipe;

class CustomMiddleware extends MiddlewarePipe
    public function __construct($configuration)

        // do something with configuration ...

        // attach some middleware ...

        $this->pipe(/* some middleware */);

These approaches are particularly suited for cases where you may want to implement a specific workflow for an application segment using existing middleware, but do not necessarily want that middleware applied to all requests in the application.