Table Gateways

The Table Gateway subcomponent provides an object-oriented representation of a database table; its methods mirror the most common table operations. In code, the interface resembles:

namespace Zend\Db\TableGateway;

use Zend\Db\ResultSet\ResultSetInterface;
use Zend\Db\Sql\Where;

interface TableGatewayInterface
    public function getTable() : string;
    public function select(Where|callable|string|array $where = null) : ResultSetInterface;
    public function insert(array $set) : int;
    public function update(
        array $set,
        Where|callable|string|array $where = null,
        array $joins = null
    ) : int;
    public function delete(Where|callable|string|array $where) : int;

There are two primary implementations of the TableGatewayInterface, AbstractTableGateway and TableGateway. The AbstractTableGateway is an abstract basic implementation that provides functionality for select(), insert(), update(), delete(), as well as an additional API for doing these same kinds of tasks with explicit Zend\Db\Sql objects: selectWith(), insertWith(), updateWith(), and deleteWith(). In addition, AbstractTableGateway also implements a "Feature" API, that allows for expanding the behaviors of the base TableGateway implementation without having to extend the class with this new functionality. The TableGateway concrete implementation simply adds a sensible constructor to the AbstractTableGateway class so that out-of-the-box, TableGateway does not need to be extended in order to be consumed and utilized to its fullest.

Quick start

The following example uses Zend\Db\TableGateway\TableGateway, which defines the following API:

namespace Zend\Db\TableGateway;

use Zend\Db\Adapter\AdapterInterface;
use Zend\Db\ResultSet\ResultSet;
use Zend\Db\ResultSet\ResultSetInterface;
use Zend\Db\Sql;
use Zend\Db\Sql\TableIdentifier;

class TableGateway extends AbstractTableGateway
    public $lastInsertValue;
    public $table;
    public $adapter;

    public function __construct(
        string|TableIdentifier $table,
        AdapterInterface $adapter,
        Feature\AbstractFeature|Feature\FeatureSet|Feature\AbstractFeature[] $features = null,
        ResultSetInterface $resultSetPrototype = null,
        Sql\Sql $sql = null

    /** Inherited from AbstractTableGateway */

    public function isInitialized() : bool;
    public function initialize() : void;
    public function getTable() : string;
    public function getAdapter() : AdapterInterface;
    public function getColumns() : array;
    public function getFeatureSet() Feature\FeatureSet;
    public function getResultSetPrototype() : ResultSetInterface;
    public function getSql() | Sql\Sql;
    public function select(Sql\Where|callable|string|array $where = null) : ResultSetInterface;
    public function selectWith(Sql\Select $select) : ResultSetInterface;
    public function insert(array $set) : int;
    public function insertWith(Sql\Insert $insert) | int;
    public function update(
        array $set,
        Sql\Where|callable|string|array $where = null,
        array $joins = null
    ) : int;
    public function updateWith(Sql\Update $update) : int;
    public function delete(Sql\Where|callable|string|array $where) : int;
    public function deleteWith(Sql\Delete $delete) : int;
    public function getLastInsertValue() : int;

The concrete TableGateway object uses constructor injection for getting dependencies and options into the instance. The table name and an instance of an Adapter are all that is required to create an instance.

Out of the box, this implementation makes no assumptions about table structure or metadata, and when select() is executed, a simple ResultSet object with the populated Adapter's Result (the datasource) will be returned and ready for iteration.

use Zend\Db\TableGateway\TableGateway;

$projectTable = new TableGateway('project', $adapter);
$rowset = $projectTable->select(['type' => 'PHP']);

echo 'Projects of type PHP: ' . PHP_EOL;
foreach ($rowset as $projectRow) {
    echo $projectRow['name'] . PHP_EOL;

// Or, when expecting a single row:
$artistTable = new TableGateway('artist', $adapter);
$rowset      = $artistTable->select(['id' => 2]);
$artistRow   = $rowset->current();


The select() method takes the same arguments as Zend\Db\Sql\Select::where(); arguments will be passed to the Select instance used to build the SELECT query. This means the following is possible:

use Zend\Db\TableGateway\TableGateway;
use Zend\Db\Sql\Select;

$artistTable = new TableGateway('artist', $adapter);

// Search for at most 2 artists who's name starts with Brit, ascending:
$rowset = $artistTable->select(function (Select $select) {
    $select->where->like('name', 'Brit%');
    $select->order('name ASC')->limit(2);

TableGateway Features

The Features API allows for extending the functionality of the base TableGateway object without having to polymorphically extend the base class. This allows for a wider array of possible mixing and matching of features to achieve a particular behavior that needs to be attained to make the base implementation of TableGateway useful for a particular problem.

With the TableGateway object, features should be injected through the constructor. The constructor can take features in 3 different forms:

  • as a single Feature instance
  • as a FeatureSet instance
  • as an array of Feature instances

There are a number of features built-in and shipped with zend-db:

  • GlobalAdapterFeature: the ability to use a global/static adapter without needing to inject it into a TableGateway instance. This is only useful when you are extending the AbstractTableGateway implementation:
    use Zend\Db\TableGateway\AbstractTableGateway;
    use Zend\Db\TableGateway\Feature;

    class MyTableGateway extends AbstractTableGateway
        public function __construct()
            $this->table      = 'my_table';
            $this->featureSet = new Feature\FeatureSet();
            $this->featureSet->addFeature(new Feature\GlobalAdapterFeature());

    // elsewhere in code, in a bootstrap

    // in a controller, or model somewhere
    $table = new MyTableGateway(); // adapter is statically loaded
  • MasterSlaveFeature: the ability to use a master adapter for insert(), update(), and delete(), but switch to a slave adapter for all select() operations.
    $table = new TableGateway('artist', $adapter, new Feature\MasterSlaveFeature($slaveAdapter));
  • MetadataFeature: the ability populate TableGateway with column information from a Metadata object. It will also store the primary key information in case the RowGatewayFeature needs to consume this information.
    $table = new TableGateway('artist', $adapter, new Feature\MetadataFeature());
  • EventFeature: the ability to compose a zend-eventmanager EventManager instance within your TableGateway instance, and attach listeners to the various events of its lifecycle.
    $table = new TableGateway('artist', $adapter, new Feature\EventFeature($eventManagerInstance));
  • RowGatewayFeature: the ability for select() to return a ResultSet object that upon iteration will return a RowGateway instance for each row.
    $table   = new TableGateway('artist', $adapter, new Feature\RowGatewayFeature('id'));
    $results = $table->select(['id' => 2]);

    $artistRow       = $results->current();
    $artistRow->name = 'New Name';

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