Body Parsing Middleware

Zend\Expressive\Helper\BodyParams\BodyParamsMiddleware provides generic PSR-15 middleware for parsing the request body into parameters, and returning a new request instance that composes them. The subcomponent provides a strategy pattern around matching the request Content-Type, and then parsing it, giving you a flexible approach that can grow with your accepted content types.

By default, this middleware will detect the following content types:

Registering the middleware

You can register it programmatically:


Since body parsing does not necessarily need to happen for every request, you can also choose to incorporate it in route-specific middleware pipelines:

$app->post('/login', [

Using route-based middleware pipelines has the advantage of ensuring that the body parsing middleware only executes for routes that require the processing. While the middleware has some checks to ensure it only triggers for HTTP methods that accept bodies, those checks are still overhead that you might want to avoid; the above strategy of using the middleware only with specific routes can accomplish that.


If you want to intercept and parse other payload types, you can add strategies to the middleware. Strategies implement Zend\Expressive\Helper\BodyParams\StrategyInterface:

namespace Zend\Expressive\Helper\BodyParams;

use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;

interface StrategyInterface
     * Match the content type to the strategy criteria.
    public function match(string $contentType) : bool;

     * Parse the body content and return a new request.
    public function parse(ServerRequestInterface $request) : ServerRequestInterface;

You then register them with the middleware using the addStrategy() method:

$bodyParams->addStrategy(new MyCustomBodyParamsStrategy());

To automate the registration, we recommend writing a factory for the BodyParamsMiddleware, and replacing the invokables registration with a registration in the factories section of the middleware-pipeline.config.php file:

use Zend\Expressive\Helper\BodyParams\BodyParamsMiddleware;

class MyCustomBodyParamsStrategyFactory
    public function __invoke($container)
        $bodyParams = new BodyParamsMiddleware();
        $bodyParams->addStrategy(new MyCustomBodyParamsStrategy());
        return $bodyParams;

// In config/autoload/middleware-pipeline.config.php:
use Zend\Expressive\Helper;

return [
    'dependencies' => [
        'invokables' => [
            // Remove this line:
            Helper\BodyParams\BodyParamsMiddleware::class => Helper\BodyParams\BodyParamsMiddleware::class,
            /* ... */
        'factories' => [
            // Add this line:
            Helper\BodyParams\BodyParamsMiddleware::class => MyCustomBodyParamsStrategyFactory::class,
            /* ... */

Alternately, use a delegator factory.

Removing the default strategies

By default, BodyParamsMiddleware composes the following strategies:

These provide the most basic approaches to parsing the request body. They operate in the order they do to ensure the most common content type — application/x-www-form-urlencoded — matches first, as the middleware delegates parsing to the first match.

If you do not want to use these default strategies, you can clear them from the middleware using clearStrategies():


Note: if you do this, all strategies will be removed! As such, we recommend doing this only immediately before registering any custom strategies you might be using.