Pages

zend-navigation ships with two page types:

MVC pages link to on-site web pages, and are defined using MVC parameters (action, controller, route, params). URI pages are defined by a single property uri, which give you the full flexibility to link off-site pages or do other things with the generated links (e.g. a URI that turns into <a href="#">foo<a>).

Common page features

All page classes must extend Zend\Navigation\Page\AbstractPage, and will thus share a common set of features and properties. Most notably, they share the options in the table below and the same initialization process.

Option keys are mapped to set*() methods. This means that the option order maps to the method setOrder(), and reset_params maps to the method setResetParams(). If there is no setter method for the option, it will be set as a custom property of the page.

Read more on extending Zend\Navigation\Page\AbstractPage in the section "Creating custom page types".

Common page options

Key Type Default Description
label string NULL A page label, such as 'Home' or 'Blog'.
fragment string|null NULL A fragment identifier (anchor identifier) pointing to an anchor within a resource that is subordinate to another, primary resource. The fragment identifier introduced by a hash mark "#". Example: http://www.example.org/foo.html#bar (bar is the fragment identifier)
id string|integer NULL An id tag/attribute that may be used when rendering the page, typically in an anchor element.
class string NULL A CSS class that may be used when rendering the page, typically in an anchor element.
title string NULL A short page description, typically for using as the title attribute in an anchor.
target string NULL Specifies a target that may be used for the page, typically in an anchor element.
rel array [] Specifies forward relations for the page. Each element in the array is a key-value pair, where the key designates the relation/link type, and the value is a pointer to the linked page. An example of a key-value pair is 'alternate' => 'format/plain.html'. To allow full flexibility, there are no restrictions on relation values. The value does not have to be a string. Read more about rel and rev in the section on the Links helper.
rev array [] Specifies reverse relations for the page. Works exactly like rel.
order string|integer|null NULL Works like order for elements in Zend\Form. If specified, the page will be iterated in a specific order, meaning you can force a page to be iterated before others by setting the order attribute to a low number, e.g. -100. If a String is given, it must parse to a valid int. If NULL is given, it will be reset, meaning the order in which the page was added to the container will be used.
resource string|Zend\Permissions\Acl\Resource\ResourceInterface|null NULL ACL resource to associate with the page. Read more in the section on ACL integration in view helpers.
privilege string|null NULL ACL privilege to associate with the page. Read more in the section on ACL integration in view helpers.
active boolean FALSE Whether the page should be considered active for the current request. If active is FALSE or not given, MVC pages will check its properties against the request object upon calling $page->isActive().
visible boolean TRUE Whether page should be visible for the user, or just be a part of the structure. Invisible pages are skipped by view helpers.
pages array|Travsersable|null NULL Child pages of the page. This could be an array or Traversable object containing either page options that can be passed to the factory() method, AbstractPage instances, or a mixture of both.

Custom properties

All pages support setting and retrieval of custom properties by use of the magic methods __set($name, $value), __get($name), __isset($name) and __unset($name). Custom properties may have any value, and will be included in the array that is returned from $page->toArray(), which means that pages can be serialized/deserialized successfully even if the pages contains properties that are not native in the page class.

Both native and custom properties can be set using $page->set($name, $value) and retrieved using $page->get($name), or by using magic methods.

The following example demonstrates custom properties:

$page = new Zend\Navigation\Page\Mvc();
$page->foo     = 'bar';
$page->meaning = 42;

echo $page->foo;

if ($page->meaning != 42) {
    // action should be taken
}

MVC pages

MVC pages are defined using MVC parameters known from the zend-mvc component. An MVC page will use Zend\Router\RouteStackInterface internally in the getHref() method to generate href attributes, and the isActive() method will compare the Zend\Router\RouteMatch params with the page's params to determine if the page is active.

useRouteMatch flag

Starting in version 2.2.0, if you want to re-use any matched route parameters when generating a link, you can do so via the useRouteMatch flag. This is particularly useful when creating segment routes that include the currently selected language or locale as an initial segment, as it ensures the links generated all include the matched value.

MVC page options

Key Type Default Description
action string NULL Action name to use when generating href to the page.
controller string NULL Controller name to use when generating href to the page.
params array [] User params to use when generating href to the page.
route string NULL Route name to use when generating href to the page.
routeMatch Zend\Router\RouteMatch NULL RouteInterface matches used for routing parameters and testing validity.
useRouteMatch boolean FALSE If true, then the getHref() method will use the routeMatch parameters to assemble the URI.
router Zend\Router\RouteStackInterface NULL Router for assembling URLs.
query array [] Query string arguments to use when generating href to page.

URIs are relative to base URL

The URI returned is relative to the baseUrl in Zend\Router\Http\TreeRouteStack. In the examples, the baseUrl is '/' for simplicity.

getHref() generates the page URI

This example demonstrates that MVC pages use Zend\Router\RouteStackInterface internally to generate URIs when calling $page->getHref().

use Zend\Navigation\Page;
use Zend\Router\Http\Segment;
use Zend\Router\Http\TreeRouteStack;

// Create route
$route = Segment::factory([
   'route'       => '/[:controller[/:action][/:id]]',
   'constraints' => [
      'controller' => '[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_-]+',
      'action'     => '[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_-]+',
      'id'         => '[0-9]+',
   ],
   [
      'controller' => 'Album\Controller\Album',
      'action'     => 'index',
   ]
]);
$router = new TreeRouteStack();
$router->addRoute('default', $route);

// getHref() returns /album/add
$page = new Page\Mvc([
    'action'     => 'add',
    'controller' => 'album',
]);

// getHref() returns /album/edit/1337
$page = new Page\Mvc([
    'action'     => 'edit',
    'controller' => 'album',
    'params'     => ['id' => 1337],
]);

 // getHref() returns /album/1337?format=json
$page = new Page\Mvc([
    'action'     => 'edit',
    'controller' => 'album',
    'params'     => ['id' => 1337],
    'query'      => ['format' => 'json'],
]);

isActive() determines if page is active

This example demonstrates that MVC pages determine whether they are active by using the params found in the route match object.

use Zend\Navigation\Page;

/**
 * Dispatched request:
 * - controller: album
 * - action:     index
 */
$page1 = new Page\Mvc([
    'action'     => 'index',
    'controller' => 'album',
]);

$page2 = new Page\Mvc([
    'action'     => 'edit',
    'controller' => 'album',
]);

$page1->isActive(); // returns true
$page2->isActive(); // returns false

/**
 * Dispatched request:
 * - controller: album
 * - action:     edit
 * - id:         1337
 */
$page = new Page\Mvc([
    'action'     => 'edit',
    'controller' => 'album',
    'params'     => ['id' => 1337],
]);

// returns true, because request has the same controller and action
$page->isActive();

/**
 * Dispatched request:
 * - controller: album
 * - action:     edit
 */
$page = new Page\Mvc([
    'action'     => 'edit',
    'controller' => 'album',
    'params'     => ['id' => null],
]);

// returns false, because page requires the id param to be set in the request
$page->isActive(); // returns false

Using routes

Routes can be used with MVC pages. If a page has a route, this route will be used in getHref() to generate the URL for the page.

Default parameters are not necessary

Note that when using the route property in a page, you do not need to specify the default params that the route defines (controller, action, etc.).

use Zend\Navigation\Page;
use Zend\Router\Http\Segment;
use Zend\Router\Http\TreeRouteStack;

// the following route is added to the ZF router
$route = Segment::factory([
   'route'       => '/a/:id',
   'constraints' => [
      'id' => '[0-9]+',
   ],
   [
      'controller' => 'Album\Controller\Album',
      'action'     => 'show',
   ]
]);
$router = new TreeRouteStack();
$router->addRoute('albumShow', $route);

// a page is created with a 'route' option
$page = new Page\Mvc([
    'label'      => 'Show album',
    'route'      => 'albumShow',
    'params'     => ['id' => 42]
]);

// returns: /a/42
$page->getHref();

URI Pages

Pages of type Zend\Navigation\Page\Uri can be used to link to pages on other domains or sites, or to implement custom logic for the page. In addition to the common page options, a URI page takes only one additional option, a uri. The uri will be returned when calling $page->getHref(), and may be a string or null.

No auto-determination of active status

Zend\Navigation\Page\Uri will not try to determine whether it should be active when calling $page->isActive(); it merely returns what currently is set. In order to make a URI page active, you must manually call $page->setActive() or specify the active as a page option during instantiation.

URI page options

Key Type Default Description
uri string NULL URI to page. This can be any string or NULL.

Creating custom page types

When extending Zend\Navigation\Page\AbstractPage, there is usually no need to override the constructor or the setOptions() method. The page constructor takes a single parameter, an array or a Traversable object, which is then passed to setOptions(). That method will in turn call the appropriate set*() methods based on the options provided, which in turn maps the option to native or custom properties. If the option internal_id is given, the method will first look for a method named setInternalId(), and pass the option to this method if it exists. If the method does not exist, the option will be set as a custom property of the page, and be accessible via $internalId = $page->internal_id; or $internalId = $page->get('internal_id');.

Basic custom page example

The only thing a custom page class needs to implement is the getHref() method.

namespace My;

use Zend\Navigation\Page\AbstractPage;

class Page extends AbstractPage
{
    public function getHref()
    {
        return 'something-completely-different';
    }
}

A custom page with properties

When adding properties to an extended page, there is no need to override/modify setOptions().

namespace My\Navigation;

use Zend\Navigation\Page\AbstractPage;

class Page extends AbstractPage
{
    protected $foo;
    protected $fooBar;

    public function setFoo($foo)
    {
        $this->foo = $foo;
    }

    public function getFoo()
    {
        return $this->foo;
    }

    public function setFooBar($fooBar)
    {
        $this->fooBar = $fooBar;
    }

    public function getFooBar()
    {
        return $this->fooBar;
    }

    public function getHref()
    {
        return sprintf('%s/%s', $this->foo, $this->fooBar);
    }
}

// Instantiation:
$page = new Page([
    'label'   => 'Property names are mapped to setters',
    'foo'     => 'bar',
    'foo_bar' => 'baz',
]);

Creating pages using the page factory

All pages (also custom classes), can be created using the page factory, Zend\Navigation\Page\AbstractPage::factory(). The factory accepts either an array or Traversable set of options. Each key in the options corresponds to a page option, as seen earlier. If the option uri is given and no MVC options are provided (e.g., action, controller, route), a URI page will be created. If any of the MVC options are given, an MVC page will be created.

If type is given, the factory will assume the value to be the name of the class that should be created. If the value is mvc or uri, an MVC or URI page will be created, respectively.

Creating an MVC page using the page factory

use Zend\Navigation\Page\AbstractPage;

// MVC page, as "action" is defined
$page = AbstractPage::factory([
    'label'  => 'My MVC page',
    'action' => 'index',
]);

// MVC page, as "action" and "controller" are defined
$page = AbstractPage::factory([
    'label'      => 'Search blog',
    'action'     => 'index',
    'controller' => 'search',
]);

// MVC page, as "route" is defined
$page = AbstractPage::factory([
    'label' => 'Home',
    'route' => 'home',
]);

// MVC page, as "type" is "mvc"
$page = AbstractPage::factory([
    'type'   => 'mvc',
    'label'  => 'My MVC page',
]);

Creating a URI page using the page factory

use Zend\Navigation\Page\AbstractPage;

// URI page, as "uri" is present, with now MVC options
$page = AbstractPage::factory([
    'label' => 'My URI page',
    'uri'   => 'http://www.example.com/',
]);

// URI page, as "uri" is present, with now MVC options
$page = AbstractPage::factory([
    'label'  => 'Search',
    'uri'    => 'http://www.example.com/search',
    'active' => true,
]);

// URI page, as "uri" is present, with now MVC options
$page = AbstractPage::factory([
    'label' => 'My URI page',
    'uri'   => '#',
]);

// URI page, as "type" is "uri"
$page = AbstractPage::factory([
    'type'  => 'uri',
    'label' => 'My URI page',
]);

Creating a custom page type using the page factory

To create a custom page type using the factory, use the option type to specify a class name to instantiate.

namespace My\Navigation;

use Zend\Navigation\Page\AbstractPage;

class Page extends AbstractPage
{
    protected $fooBar = 'ok';

    public function setFooBar($fooBar)
    {
        $this->fooBar = $fooBar;
    }
}

// Creates Page instance, as "type" refers to its class.
$page = AbstractPage::factory([
    'type'    => Page::class,
    'label'   => 'My custom page',
    'foo_bar' => 'foo bar',
]);