DbTable Credential Treatment
Zend\Authentication\Adapter\DbTable\CredentialTreatmentAdapter will execute a
SQL query containing the provided identity and credentials, passing the
credentials to a credential treatment function defined on the RDBMS server;
if an identity is returned, authentication succeeds. Common credential
The available configuration options include:
tableName: This is the name of the database table that contains the authentication credentials, and against which the database authentication query is performed.
identityColumn: This is the name of the database table column used to represent the identity. The identity column must contain unique values, such as a username or e-mail address.
credentialColumn: This is the name of the database table column used to represent the credential. Under a simple identity and password authentication scheme, the credential value corresponds to the password. See also the
credentialTreatment: In many cases, passwords and other sensitive data are encrypted, hashed, encoded, obscured, salted or otherwise treated through some function or algorithm. By specifying a parameterized treatment string with this method, such as '
MD5(?)' or '
PASSWORD(?)', a developer may apply such arbitrary SQL upon input credential data. Since these functions are specific to the underlying RDBMS, check the database manual for the availability of such functions for your database system.
As explained above, the
requires an instance of
Zend\Db\Adapter\Adapter that serves as the database
connection to which the authentication adapter instance is bound. First, the
database connection should be created.
The following code creates an adapter for an in-memory database, creates a simple table schema, and inserts a row against which we can perform an authentication query later. This example requires the PDO SQLite extension to be available:
use Zend\Db\Adapter\Adapter as DbAdapter; // Create a SQLite database connection $dbAdapter = new DbAdapter([ 'driver' => 'Pdo_Sqlite', 'database' => 'data/users.db', ]); // Build a simple table creation query $sqlCreate = 'CREATE TABLE [users] (' . '[id] INTEGER NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, ' . '[username] VARCHAR(50) UNIQUE NOT NULL, ' . '[password] VARCHAR(32) NULL, ' . '[real_name] VARCHAR(150) NULL)'; // Create the authentication credentials table $dbAdapter->query($sqlCreate); // Build a query to insert a row for which authentication may succeed $sqlInsert = "INSERT INTO users (username, password, real_name) " . "VALUES ('my_username', 'my_password', 'My Real Name')"; // Insert the data $dbAdapter->query($sqlInsert);
With the database connection and table data available, an instance of
Zend\Authentication\Adapter\DbTable\CredentialTreatmentAdapter may be
created. Configuration option values may be passed to the constructor or
deferred as parameters to setter methods after instantiation:
use Zend\Authentication\Adapter\DbTable\CredentialTreatmentAdapter as AuthAdapter; // Configure the instance with constructor parameters: $authAdapter = new AuthAdapter( $dbAdapter, 'users', 'username', 'password' ); // Or configure the instance with setter methods: $authAdapter = new AuthAdapter($dbAdapter); $authAdapter ->setTableName('users') ->setIdentityColumn('username') ->setCredentialColumn('password');
At this point, the authentication adapter instance is ready to accept
authentication queries. In order to formulate an authentication query, the
input credential values are passed to the adapter prior to calling the
// Set the input credential values (e.g., from a login form): $authAdapter ->setIdentity('my_username') ->setCredential('my_password'); // Perform the authentication query, saving the result $result = $authAdapter->authenticate();
In addition to the availability of the
getIdentity() method upon the
authentication result object,
also supports retrieving the table row upon authentication success:
// Print the identity: echo $result->getIdentity() . "\n\n"; // Print the result row: print_r($authAdapter->getResultRowObject()); /* Output: my_username Array ( [id] => 1 [username] => my_username [password] => my_password [real_name] => My Real Name ) */
Since the table row contains the credential value, it is important to secure the values against unintended access.
When retrieving the result object, we can either specify what columns to return, or what columns to omit:
// Specify the columns to return: $columnsToReturn = [ 'id', 'username', 'real_name', ]; print_r($authAdapter->getResultRowObject($columnsToReturn)); /* Output: Array ( [id] => 1 [username] => my_username [real_name] => My Real Name ) */ // Or specify the columns to omit; when using this approach, // pass a null value as the first argument to getResultRowObject(): $columnsToOmit = ['password']; print_r($authAdapter->getResultRowObject(null, $columnsToOmit); /* Output: Array ( [id] => 1 [username] => my_username [real_name] => My Real Name ) */
While the primary purpose of zend-authentication is authentication and not authorization, there are a few instances and problems that toe the line between which domain they fit. Depending on how you've decided to explain your problem, it sometimes makes sense to solve what could look like an authorization problem within the authentication adapter.
Below are a few examples showing how you can provide compound criteria to the credential treatment to solve more complex problems.
Check for compromised user
In this scenario, we use the credential treatment
MD5(), but also check to see
that the user has not been flagged as "compromised", which is a potential value
status field for the user record.
use Zend\Authentication\Adapter\DbTable\CredentialTreatmentAdapter as AuthAdapter; // The status field value of an account is not equal to "compromised" $adapter = new AuthAdapter( $db, 'users', 'username', 'password', 'MD5(?) AND status != "compromised"' );
Check for active user
In this example, we check to see if a user is active; this may be necessary if we require a user to login once over X days, or if we need to ensure that they have followed a verification process.
use Zend\Authentication\Adapter\DbTable\CredentialTreatmentAdapter as AuthAdapter; // The active field value of an account is equal to "TRUE" $adapter = new AuthAdapter( $db, 'users', 'username', 'password', 'MD5(?) AND active = "TRUE"' );
Another scenario can be the implementation of a salting mechanism. Salting refers to a technique for improving application security; it's based on the idea that concatenating a random string to every password makes it impossible to accomplish a successful brute force attack on the database using pre-computed hash values from a dictionary.
Let's modify our table to store our salt string:
$sqlAlter = "ALTER TABLE [users] " . "ADD COLUMN [password_salt] " . "AFTER [password]";
Salts should be created for each user using a cryptographically sound pseudo-random number generator (CSPRNG). PHP 7 provides an implementation via
$salt = random_bytes(32);
For earlier versions of PHP, use zend-math's
use Zend\Math\Rand; $salt = Rand::getBytes(32, true);
(As of zend-math 2.7.0,
Rand::getBytes() will proxy to
running under PHP 7, making it a good, forwards-compatible solution for your
Do this each time you create a user or update their password, and store it in the
password_salt column you created.
Now let's build the adapter:
$adapter = new AuthAdapter( $db, 'users', 'username', 'password', "MD5(CONCAT('staticSalt', ?, password_salt))" );
You can improve security even more by using a static salt value hard coded into your application. In the case that your database is compromised (e.g. by an SQL injection attack) but your web server is intact, your data is still unusable for the attacker.
Define the salt as an environment variable on your web server, and then either pull it from the environment, or assign it to a constant during bootstrap; pass the value to the credential treatment when creating your adapter.
The above example uses the value "staticSalt"; you should create a better salt using one of the methods outlined above.
Alter the SQL select directly
Another alternative is to use the
getDbSelect() method to retrieve the
Zend\Db\Sql\Select instance associated with the adapter and modify it. (The
method is common to all
Zend\Authentication\Adapter\DbTable adapters.) The
Select instance is consumed by the
authenticate() routine when building the
SQL to execute on the RDBMS server. It is important to note that this method
will always return the same
Select instance regardless if
has been called or not; identity and credential values are passed to the
instance as placeholders.
This approach allows you to define a generic credential treatment, and then add criteria later, potentially based on specific paths through the application.
The following uses the second example in this section, adding another
clause to determine if the user is active in the system.
// Create a basic adapter, with only an MD5() credential treatment: $adapter = new AuthAdapter( $db, 'users', 'username', 'password', 'MD5(?)' ); // Now retrieve the Select instance and modify it: $select = $adapter->getDbSelect(); $select->where('active = "TRUE"'); // Authenticate; this will include "users.active = TRUE" in the WHERE clause: $adapter->authenticate();
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