In This Article

Adapters Introduction

zend-authentication adapters are used to authenticate against a particular type of authentication service, such as LDAP, RDBMS, or file-based storage. Different adapters are likely to have vastly different options and behaviors, but some basic things are common among authentication adapters. For example, accepting authentication credentials (including a purported identity), performing queries against the authentication service, and returning results are common to zend-authentication adapters.

AdapterInterface

Each adapter implements Zend\Authentication\Adapter\AdapterInterface. This interface defines one method, authenticate(), which provides the implementation for performing an authentication query. Each adapter class must be prepared prior to calling authenticate(); such adapter preparation might include setting up credentials from user input (e.g., username and password), or defining values for adapter-specific configuration options, such as database connection settings for a database table adapter.

The following is an example authentication adapter that requires a username and password to be set for authentication. Other details, such as how the authentication service is queried, have been omitted for brevity:

<?php
namespace My\Auth;

use Zend\Authentication\Adapter\AdapterInterface;

class Adapter implements AdapterInterface
{
    /**
     * Sets username and password for authentication
     *
     * @return void
     */
    public function __construct($username, $password)
    {
        // ...
    }

    /**
     * Performs an authentication attempt
     *
     * @return \Zend\Authentication\Result
     * @throws \Zend\Authentication\Adapter\Exception\ExceptionInterface
     *     If authentication cannot be performed
     */
    public function authenticate()
    {
        // ...
    }
}

As indicated in its docblock, authenticate() must return an instance of Zend\Authentication\Result (or of a class derived from Zend\Authentication\Result). If performing an authentication query is impossible, authenticate() should throw an exception that derives from Zend\Authentication\Adapter\Exception\ExceptionInterface.

Results

Authentication adapters return an instance of Zend\Authentication\Result from authenticate() in order to represent the results of an authentication attempt. Adapters populate the Zend\Authentication\Result object upon construction:

namespace Zend\Authentication;

class Result
{
    /**
     * @param int $code
     * @param mixed $identity
     * @param array $messages
     */
    public function __construct($code, $identity, array $messages = []);
}

where:

  • $code is an integer indicating the result status. Typically you will use one of the constants defined in the Result class to provide this; a table follows detailing those.
  • $identity is the value representing the authenticated identity. This may be any PHP type; typically you will see a string username or token, or an object type specific to the application or login module you utilize. When the result represents a failure to authenticate, this will often be null; some systems will provide a default identity in such cases.
  • $messages is an array of authentication failure messages.

The following result codes are available:

namespace Zend\Authentication;

class Result
{
    const SUCCESS = 1;
    const FAILURE = 0;
    const FAILURE_IDENTITY_NOT_FOUND = -1;
    const FAILURE_IDENTITY_AMBIGUOUS = -2;
    const FAILURE_CREDENTIAL_INVALID = -3;
    const FAILURE_UNCATEGORIZED = -4;
}

Note that success is a truthy value, while failure of any sort is a falsy value.

Results provide the following four user-facing operations:

  • isValid() returns TRUE if and only if the result represents a successful authentication attempt.
  • getCode() returns the Zend\Authentication\Result constant identifier associated with the specific result. This may be used in situations where the developer wishes to distinguish among several authentication result types. This allows developers to maintain detailed authentication result statistics, for example. Another use of this feature is to provide specific, customized messages to users for usability reasons, though developers are encouraged to consider the risks of providing such detailed reasons to users, instead of a general authentication failure message. For more information, see the notes below.
  • getIdentity() returns the identity of the authentication attempt.
  • getMessages() returns an array of messages regarding a failed authentication attempt.

A developer may wish to branch based on the type of authentication result in order to perform more specific operations. Some operations developers might find useful are locking accounts after too many unsuccessful password attempts, flagging an IP address after too many nonexistent identities are attempted, and providing specific, customized authentication result messages to the user.

The following example illustrates how a developer may branch on the result code:

$result = $authenticationService->authenticate($adapter);

switch ($result->getCode()) {

    case Result::FAILURE_IDENTITY_NOT_FOUND:
        /** do stuff for nonexistent identity **/
        break;

    case Result::FAILURE_CREDENTIAL_INVALID:
        /** do stuff for invalid credential **/
        break;

    case Result::SUCCESS:
        /** do stuff for successful authentication **/
        break;

    default:
        /** do stuff for other failure **/
        break;
}

Found a mistake or want to contribute to the documentation? Edit this page on GitHub!