Creating Middleware

Middleware piped to a MiddlewarePipe MUST implement the PSR-15 middleware interface.

use Psr\Http\Message\ResponseInterface;
use Psr\Http\Message\ServerRequestInterface;
use Psr\Http\Server\MiddlewareInterface;
use Psr\Http\Server\RequestHandlerInterface;

class MyMiddleware implements MiddlewareInterface
    public function process(
        ServerRequestInterface $request,
        RequestHandlerInterface $handler
    ) : ResponseInterface {
        // ... do something and return response
        // or call request handler:
        // return $handler->handle($request);

Anonymous middleware

For one-off middleware, particularly when debugging, you can use an anonymous class to implement MiddleareInterface:

$pipeline->pipe(new class implements MiddlewareInterface {
    public function process(ServerRequestInterface $request, RequestHandlerInterface $handler) : ResponseInterface
        $response = $handler->handle($request);
        return $response->withHeader('X-Clacks-Overhead', 'GNU Terry Pratchett');

Callable middleware

Sometimes it's easier to eschew the MiddlewareInterface, particularly when creating a one-off middleware for debugging purposes. In those cases, you can create a PHP callable that follows the same signature of MiddlewareInterface::process(), and wrap it in a Zend\Stratigility\Middleware\CallableMiddlewareDecorator instance:

$pipeline->pipe(new CallableMiddlewareDecorator(function ($req, $handler) {
    // do some work
    $response = $handler->($req);
    // do some work
    return $response;

The typehints for the arguments are optional, but such callable middleware will receive ServerRequestInterface and RequestHandlerInterface instances, in that order.

You may also use the middleware() utility function in place of new CallableMiddlewareDecorator().

Double-Pass middleware

Prior to PSR-15, many PSR-7 frameworks and projects adopted a "double-pass" middleware definition:

function (
    ServerRequestInterface $request,
    ResponseInterface $response,
    callable $next
) : ResponseInterface

where $next had the signature:

function (
    ServerRequestInterface $request,
    ResponseInterface $response
) : ResponseInterface

The latter interface is the origin of the term "double-pass", as the implementation passes not a single argument, but two. (The $response argument was often used as a response prototype for middleware that needed to return a response.)

Zend\Stratigility\Middleware\DoublePassMiddlewareDecorator allows decorating such middleware within a PSR-15 MiddlewareInterface implementation, allowing it to be used in your Stratigility application.

When using DoublePassMiddlewareDecorator, internally it will decorate the $handler instance as a callable.

To use the decorator, pass it the double-pass middleware to decorate via the constructor:

$pipeline->pipe(new DoublePassMiddlewareDecorator($middleware));

If you are not using zend-diactoros for your PSR-7 implementation, the decorator also accepts a second argument, a PSR-7 ResponseInterface prototype instance to pass to the double-pass middleware:

$pipeline->pipe(new DoublePassMiddlewareDecorator(

You may also use the doublePassMiddleware() utility function in place of new DoublePassMiddlewareDecorator().

Beware of operating on the response

In many cases, poorly written double-pass middleware will manipulate the response provided to them and pass the manipulated version to $next.

This is problematic if you mix standard PSR-15 and double-pass middleware, as the response instance is dropped when $next is called, as the decorator we provide will ignore the argument.

If you notice such issues appearing, please report them to the project providing the double-pass middleware, and ask them to only operate on the returned response.